海日:中国生物天然气行业的现状、问题与前景

1评论 2017-11-27 08:14:41 来源:金融界网站 作者:新三板文学社 海航创新 A股最亮的星!

尽管当前中国生物天然气发展还面临技术、管理、人才、政策等方面问题,但是在中央及地方政府的推动下,在中国庞大的社会资本参与下,生物天然气行业将在“十三五”时期呈现加快发展之势。

  前言:本文为昊海国际投资公司10月发布的中国生物天然气行业分析报告,执笔人为新三板文学社专栏作家海日。本文采取中英文对照方式,以便于国际、国内投资者更好的理解中国生物天然气行业发展现状、问题、前景与风险。

  作者:海日

  作者简介:昊海国际投资公司董事长、世界青商经济文化交流中心理事。曾先后就读于中国政法大学经济法学院民商经济法专业,南京大学软件学院软件工程财务与金融工程方向(MSE)专业,沃顿商学院MBA2018-2019( 美国石油公司总经理推荐生)。

  目录

  一、中国发展生物天然气的驱动因素

  The driving force of the Biogas development in China

  二、生物质天然气相关政策分析

  Relative policies about biomass gas

  三、生物天然气发展现状及存在的问题

  Bio-gas developmentstatus and the problems

  1.发展现状 Development status

  2.存在的问题 Problems

  四、生物天然气发展前景

  Biogas development future

  1.发展潜力 Potential

  2.重点任务 Key tasks

  五、风险分析

  Risk analysis

  六、结论

  Conclusions

  附:中国生物质能及生物天然气(含沼气)主要政策

  Attachment: Major policies for biomass and biogas(methane)

  以下为正文:

  生物质能是全球继石油、煤炭、天然气之后的第四大能源。中国可作为能源利用的农作物秸秆及农产品(行情000061,诊股)加工剩余物、林业剩余物和能源作物、生活垃圾与有机废弃物等生物质资源总量每年约4.6亿吨标准煤,当前的利用量不足10%,其中商品化利用量约占资源总量的5%规模化大型沼气工程尤其是生物天然气所产生的沼气,可用于发电上网或是提纯后并入天然气管网、车用燃气、工商企业用气,实现高值高效利用。生物天然气在中国已起步,并呈现良好发展势头。

  Bio-mass is the fourth energy in the world followed by the fossil oil, coal, natural gas. Biomass resources such as crop straw and agricultural residues of agricultural products and waste from energy crops and organic wastes, can be used as energy resource, only be used less than 10% from total 460 million tons equivalence coal, and about 5% of it been commercialized. To scale up the methane project especially from the bio-mas, it can be used to generate the electricity or integrate into natural gas pipeline network, auto gas, industrial gas after purification to realize high efficient utilization. Bio-gas already started in china with a good trend.

  一、中国发展生物天然气的驱动因素

  1.The driving force of the bio-gas development in China

  一是生态文明建设要求加快农村沼气事业发展。中国每年产生的农作物秸秆10.4亿吨,可收集资源量9亿吨;规模化畜禽养殖场每年产生粪便20.5亿吨,有56%未得到有效利用[数据来源:《全国农村沼气发展“十三五”规划》]

  First, the construction of ecological civilization requires speeding up the development of rural biogas. It produces 1.04 billion tons of crop straw per year in China, which can collect 900 million tons of resources. Large-scale livestock and poultry farms produce 2.05 billion tons of dung per year, and 56% of them are not effectively utilized.

  二是人们生活水平的提高要求加快农村沼气事业发展。随着人们收入和生活水平的提高,人们对肉蛋禽奶的消费量将较快增加。这将带动中国畜禽养殖行业发展,从而倒逼养殖场废弃物资源化、能源化事业发展。发展沼气、生物天然气将是一个重要的高质高效选择。

  Second, speeding up the rural biogas development required by the risen of the people living standard. As income and living standards improved, the consumption of meat egg and milk will be rapidly increased. This will drive the development of livestock and poultry breeding industry in China, which reversed transmission of discharge of the waste energy. So the development of methane and biogas will be an important and efficient option.

  三是农业供给侧改革要求加快农村沼气事业发展。目前中国大田作物播种面积24.82亿亩,亩均施肥量21.9千克,是世界平均水平、欧美国家水平的近3倍。果木、蔬菜种植也存在相似问题。沼肥可替代大田作物、果蔬种植化肥施用,可改善土质、提升产品质量。一个日产500立方米的沼气设施,可年产沼肥1000吨,相当于氮肥43吨。

  Third, the agricultural suPPly side reform requires to speed up the rural methane development. Now China field crop planting area of 1.67 billion hec., fertilizer rates is 326.87 kg per hec., which is three times of the world's average level as well as European and American countries, the fruit and vegetables with the similar problems. Biomass fertilizer can be used for crops and the fruit and vegetable planting, it can improve soil quality and the product quality. Facilities daily produces 500 cubic meters of biogas can produce 1000 tons of biogas manure per year, equal to 43 tons of nitrogen fertilizer.

  四是中国能源革命要求加快农村沼气事业发展。中国能源消费总量43亿吨标准煤,煤炭占64%,比重过高;天然气净进口量621亿立方米,对外依存度达到32.1%。未来我国能源生产和消费要立足国内多元供应保安全,可再生能源将发挥更重要的作用。中国已正式向国际社会承诺,到2030年,非化石能源占一次能源消费比重提高到20%左右。中国每年可用于沼气生产的农业废弃物资源达到14.04亿吨,可生产生物天然气736亿立方米,可替代约8760万吨标准煤,对降低煤炭消费量、补充天然气缺口意义重大。

  Fourth, China's energy revolution has called for accelerating the development of rural biogas in China. Energy consumption in China is total 4.3 billion tons of standard coal, and coal accounts for 64% with much too high proportion. Net imports of 62.1 billion cubic meters of natural gas, external dependency rate reaches to 32.1%. The future energy production and consumption in China should be based on the domestic multivariate and safe supply, renewable energy will play a more important role in it. China has formally made commitment to the international society, by 2030, non-fossil energy accounted for about 20% of the total energy consumption. Every year, agricultural waste resources in China can be used for biogas production reached to 1.404 billion tons, which can produce 73.6 billion cubic meters of natural gas, equivalents to about 87.6 million tons of standard coal. All of great meaning for to reduce the coal consumption and supplement natural gas.

  五是新型城镇化建设要求加快农村沼气事业发展。到2020年,中国要实现1亿农业转移人口和其他常住人口在城镇落户,需要新增沼气供应118亿立方米,用于集中供气供暖,满足炊事采暖用能需求。

  Fifth, urbanization construction requires to speed up the rural methane development. In 2020, China is to transfer 100 million agricultural population and the others to the population of permanent residents in cities and towns, it needs new11.8 billion cubic meters biogas supply used for central heating and to satisfy the cooking heating demand.

  可见,中国发展生物天然气事业是满足自身可持续发展的内在需要,涉及生态、民生、能源、经济等多方面,综合带动效应巨大。这也是中国生物天然气事业发展的内在逻辑。

  So we can say that the development of the biogas is to fulfill our internal continuous development demands, covers ecology, livelihood, energy, economy and other aspects with huge comprehensive drive effect. This is the internal logical of the biogas development in China.

  二、生物质天然气相关政策分析

  2.The relative policies of the biomass gas

  近年,中国政府明确提出大力发展生物质能及生物天然气(含沼气)事业。

  In recent years, Chinese government clears issued out to develop biomass energy and biogas(includes methane).

  2016年12月21日,中央财经领导小组第十四次会议上指出要坚持政府支持、企业主体、市场化运作的方针,以沼气和生物天然气为主要处理方向,力争十三五时期,基本解决大规模畜禽养殖场粪污处理和资源化问题

  On December 21, 2016, the central finance leadership of the group of the14th conference pointed out that: to adhere to the policy of government sponsors enterprises-oriented and the market operation, to take methane and biogas as the main processing direction, and strive basically to solve large-scale livestock and poultry farm waste treatment and resource recovery problems during the 13th five year plan.

  2017年中央一号文——《关于深入推进农业供给侧结构性改革加快培育农业农村发展新动能的若干意见》提出,大力推行高效生态循环的种养模式,加快畜禽粪便集中处理,推动规模化大型沼气健康发展

  In 2017 the central government issued the number one article “Opinions about deepening agricultural structural reform to speed up the breeding agricultural and rural development driven forces” mentioned that, to push forward the efficient ecological raising and to speed up the centralized processing of animal manure, to promote healthy development of large scale biogas”.

  除此之外,中国政府在产业、财税、土地等政策方面,持续出台多项具体政策支持生物质能及生物天然气发展。在产业方面,中国政府对每立方米生物天然气生产能力补助2500元,沼气发电享受无歧视电网接入服务并享受上网电价优惠政策等;在财税方面,中国政府对以畜禽粪便、餐厨垃圾等产生的沼气为原料生产的电力、热力、燃料,实行增值税即征即退政策等。[主要政策见附件:2013年,中国国务院发布《畜禽规模养殖污染防治条例》,对制取沼气等生物质处理方法进行了严格规定和要求。]

  In addition, Chinese government continuous issued a number of specific policies in the field of industrial, land and taxation policies to support the development of biomass energy and biogas. In industrial aspect, the Chinese government subsidies 2500 yuan for each cubic meter of natural gas production, biogas power generation to enjoy discrimination-free power grid access and enjoy preferential policies feed-in tariff, etc.; In terms of fiscal and taxation, the Chinese government returns the payment of VAT for the electricity, heating, fuel generated by livestock and poultry manure and the kitchen waste. In 2013, Chinese state council carried out the policy” Pollution Prevention regulations on scale breeding of livestock and poultry” for strictly regulate the biomass processing method.

  多个省市区先后出台生物天然气相关政策。2016年,江苏省出台《“两减六治三提升”专项行动方案》、内蒙古制定《关于进一步贯彻炉石<;畜禽规模养殖污染防治条例>;促进养殖废弃物综合利用加强污染防治的通知》;2015年,河南省出台《河南省碧水工程行动计划》、浙江省制定《浙江省畜禽养殖污染防治办法》、广西制定《关于广西畜禽规模养殖污染防治工作方案》等。

  Several provinces have issued related biogas policies. In 2016, Jiangsu province issued “Special action plans for environmental protection”, Inner Mongolia set policy on further implementation of livestock and poultry pollution control regulations; In 2015, Henan province issued a plan to recover the clean water, and Zhejiang province issued the prevention regulations on the livestock breeding pollution, Guangxi province also set the policy to control the pollution of livestock and poultry.

  三、生物天然气发展现状及存在的问题

  3.The current status and problems of biogas development

  发展现状

  Development status

  根据《生物质能发展“十三五”规划》,截至2015年底,中国沼气理论年产量约190亿立方米,其中户用沼气理论年产量约140亿立方米,规模化沼气工程约10万出,年产气量约50亿立方米。截至2015 年底,全国户用沼气达到4193.3 万户,受益人口达2 亿人。户用沼气规模较大的地区包括四川、广西、河南、云南、湖北、河北、山东、湖南。中国生物天然气发展情况总结如下:

  According to the 13th five-year plan of the development of biomass energy, by the end of 2015, annual output of biogas is about 19 billion cubic meters of in theory, the household biogas output is about 14 billion cubic meters in theory, about 100000 units of scale biogas projects, with an annual output of 5 billion cubic meters. By the end of 2015, the amount of national household biogas reached to 41.933 million units, benefits to 200 million people. The bigger amount of the biogas users located in Sichuan, Yunnan, Guangxi, Henan, Hubei, Hebei, Shandong, Hunan province, the development status of biogas in China as follows:

  在资源方面。根据《全国农村沼气发展“十三五”规划》,中国每年产生的农作物秸秆10.4亿吨,可收集资源量9亿吨;规模化畜禽养殖场每年产生粪便20.5亿吨,有56%未得到有效利用。可见中国生物质资源丰富,但开发水平还较低。

  In terms of resource, according to the 13th five-year plan of national rural biogas development, 10.4 billion tons of crop straw in China can be produced per year, which can collect 900 million tons of resources. 2.05 billion tons of manure can be produced from large-scale livestock and poultry farms every year, and 56% of them are not effectively utilized. The biomass resources in China are abundant, but the development condition is still very poor.

  在技术装备方面。经过多年发展,沼气工程相关设备已取得一定突破,大部分设备可实现国产化,但是发电、提纯等关键设备与国际先进技术仍存在一定差距。

  In terms of technology and equipment. After years of development, related equipment of biogas engineering has made some breakthrough, most of the equipment can be produced locally, but there is still gap with international advanced technology such as power generation and purification.

  在开发模式方面。中国生物天然气项目一般都是政府主导型,重视政策制定,重视项目建设,但缺少对项目运营管理方面的有效激励和监管,工程运营产生的现金流不理想,企业通过建设沼气工程通过获得补贴盈利。中国生物天然气行业普遍缺乏可持续性的商业模式。

  In terms of development mode. Biogas projects in China are generally government leading, government attaches great attention to the policy setting, attaches great importance to the projects construction , but lacks of effective incentive and supervision on project operation management, cash flow generated by project operating is not ideal, the enterprise make profit through subsidies from the government by the construction of biogas project. In general, biogas industry China lacks of sustainable business model.

  在运行情况方面。农村户用沼气使用率普遍下降,农民需求意愿越来越小,废弃现象日益突出;中小型沼气工程整体运行不佳,多数亏损,长期可持续运营能力较低,存在许多闲置现象。同时,中国缺乏生物天然气行业相关专业管理团队。

  In terms of operation.The utilization of biogas is generally decreasing in rural households, and the demand of farmers is getting smaller and smaller, and much more abandonment. And small and medium sized biogas projects are under-performing as a whole, most of them losses, very low possibilities to have long-term sustainable operation with lots of idle ones. At the same time, related professional management team in China are not sufficient.

  存在的问题

  Problems

  与德国等国外发展生物天然气较好的国家相比,中国生物天然气发展存在以下问题:

  Compared with other countries such as Germany, China has the following problems in the development of biogas:

  一是缺乏顶层设计,特别是畜禽养殖场等粪便处理缺乏政策支持,未采用特许经营权方式,地方缺乏可行的行业发展规划等。

  First, lack of top-level design, especially lacks of the supporting policy for feces treatment from livestock and poultry farms, the concession contract methods not been adopted, and the feasible industry development plans in local areas is not available.

  二是处理农业废弃物不仅不能向养殖企业收费,通常还要向养殖企业支付费用,且无政府补贴。

  Second, it is not to pay to farming enterprise for agricultural waste treatment, but also to pay the fee to the breeding enterprise without government subsidies.

  三是生物天然气不属于农业项目,只能按照危化品生产标准进行设计建设和验收,增加了项目投资。

  Third, biogas is not a agricultural project. It can only be designed and inspected in accordance with the production standard of dangerous chemicals, and the project investment increased.

  四是缺乏相应的土地税收支持性政策,很多项目因此不能立项或投入运行,直接影响项目收益。

  Fourth, corresponding support policies for land tax are not available, lots of projects cannot be initiated or put into operation, which directly affects the project revenue.

  五是对于生物天然气项目普遍存在“重建设,轻管理”现象,对终端产品(电能、燃气、沼肥)的价格补贴力度不够或无补贴。

  Fifth, it is very common in the biogas industry that is to focus on construction and ignore the management, and the price subsidy of terminal products (power, gas and marsh fertilizer) is not enough or unsubsidized.

  上述问题严重影响了中国生物天然气行业健康、可持续发展。

  The above stated problems have been seriously affected the sustainable development of bio-gas industry in China.

  四、生物天然气发展前景

  4.The prospect of biogas development

  发展潜力

  The potential

  根据《全国农村沼气发展“十三五”规划》,我国沼气生产潜力达到1227亿立方米,2015年全国沼气生产能力为158亿立方米,利用率仅为12.9%,发展空间巨大。具体见下表:

  According to the national rural biogas 13th five-year plan, China potentially has reached 122.7 billion cubic meters of methane production, in 2015, the capacity of national biogas production was 15.8 billion cubic meters, utilization rate is only 12.9%, great space for development.The table as below.

  【专栏】海日:中国生物天然气行业的现状、问题与前景

  表1:中国农村沼气原料来源及生产潜力

  【专栏】海日:中国生物天然气行业的现状、问题与前景

  table1:The raw material source and productive potential of biogas in rural China

  《全国农村沼气发展“十三五”规划》提出的到2020年的发展目标如下:

  The national development goals of the 13th five-year plan for rural biogas are as follows:

  【专栏】海日:中国生物天然气行业的现状、问题与前景

  表2:中国农村沼气相关发展目标China's rural biogas development target

  【专栏】海日:中国生物天然气行业的现状、问题与前景

  table2:China's rural biogas development target

  其中:规模化生物天然气工程是指日产生物天然气1万立方米以上的工程;规模化大型沼气工程是指日产沼气500立方米及以上的工程。

  Among them: the large-scale biogas project refers to the daily production of more than 10,000 cubic meters; Large-scale methane project refers to the daily production of 500 cubic meters.

  重点任务

  Key tasks

  国家能源局发布的《生物质能发展“十三五”规划》提出大力推动生物天然气规模化发展的重点任务。到2020年,初步形成一定规模的绿色低碳生物天然气产业,年产量达到80亿立方米(比2015年增长60%),建设160个生物天然气示范县和循环农业示范县。发展布局如下表:

  National energy bureau released the 13th five-year plan of biomass energy development puts forward the key task to promote the development of biogas. In 2020, a certain scale of green low carbon biogas industry been primarily formed, the annual output reached to 8 billion cubic meters (60% more than in 2015) , to construct 160 of biogas demonstration counties and circular agriculture demonstration counties. The development layout in the following table.

  【专栏】海日:中国生物天然气行业的现状、问题与前景

  表3:“十三五”全国生物天然气建设布局

  table3:Biogas construction layout

  建设重点包括:

  Key construction projects include

  一是推动全国生物天然气示范县建设。以县为单位建立产业体系,编制县域生物天然气发展规划,构建县域分布式生产消费方式。

  First, to promote the construction of the national biogas demonstration county. To establish an county-level biogas development plan and construct a distributed production and consumption mode in the county area based on the county system.

  二是加快生物天然气技术进步和商业化。建立县域生物天然气开发建设专营机制,加快关键技术进步和工程现代化,培训和创新商业模式。

  Second, we will accelerate the progress and commercialization of biogas technologies. To establish a specialized mechanism for the development and construction of county biogas, to accelerate key technological progress and project modernization, to train and innovate business models.

  三是推进生物天然气有机肥专业化规模化建设。

  Third, we will promote the professionalization of biogas organic fertilizers.

  四是建立健全产业体系。创新原料收集保障模式,构建生物天然气多元化消费体系,强化与常规天然气衔接并网,尽快生物天然气市场化。

  Fourth, we will establish a sound comprehensive industrial system. To collect innovative raw material in a guarantee mode, build a diversified consumption system for biogas, strengthen the connection with conventional natural gas, and promote the marketization of biogas as soon as possible.

  在投资方面,到2020年,生物质能产业新增投资约1960亿元。其中,生物天然气新增投资约1200亿元,占比超过61%

  In terms of investment, by 2020, the biomass energy industry will be invest about 196 billion yuan more, and the new investment in biogas will be 120 billion yuan, accounting for more than 61%.

  五、风险分析

  

  5.Risk analysis

  在中国投资生物天然气项目需要特别关注政策风险,包括财税支持政策的退出或支持力度减弱,过度保护国内技术设备,土地政策有待改善,县域配气管网、配电网不能公平接入,优惠电价政策不落实等。

  It is specially reminded to pay great attention to investment policy risk in China when invest the biogas projects, including the exit or lessen of fiscal and taxation support policy, excessive protection of domestic technology and equipment, land policy not been improved, not fair to connect the county distribution network, failure of preferential price policy implementation, etc

  六、结论

  6.Conclusion

  中国人口众多,经济社会较快发展,对肉禽蛋奶的需求、对生物质能等清洁能源的需求、对生态改善的需求,日益强烈。在此背景下,发展生物天然气主要出于自身的经济社会发展的内在需要。因此,发展生物天然气已超越能源替代的单一目的,对中国具有重要的战略意义。

  Large population in China, with the rapid economic and social development, the demand for meat and egg and milk and for the ecological improvement and the biomass keep increasing. With this background, the development of biogas is mainly for their own inner demand. Therefore, the development of biogas has surpassed the purpose of energy replacement, the important strategic significance been attached to China

  尽管当前中国生物天然气发展还面临技术、管理、人才、政策等方面问题,但是在中央及地方政府的推动下,在中国庞大的社会资本参与下,生物天然气行业将在“十三五”时期呈现加快发展之势。可以预见,未来各方对优质资源的竞争将日益激烈,获得政府支持,寻找理想合作伙伴,创新商业模式,提高技术装备及项目管理水平将成为竞争重点。

  Despite the current problems such as technical, management, personnel, policy and so on when develop the biogas in China , but with the support from the central and local governments, driven by social capital, biogas industry development during 13th five-year plan will be speed up. Predictably, the competition focus in the future will lays on increasingly fierce competition of the best quality resource, government support, ideal partners, innovated business model, and improved technical equipment and project management level.

  附:中国生物质能及生物天然气(含沼气)主要政策

  Attachment:Major policies for biomass and biogas(methane)

  【专栏】海日:中国生物天然气行业的现状、问题与前景

  本文转自公众号“新三板文学社”,作者授权金融界网站发布,未经授权,请勿转载。如果您有干货观点或文章,愿意为广大投资者提供最权威最专业的意见参考。无论您是权威专家、财经评论家还是智库机构,我们都欢迎您积极踊跃投稿,入驻金融界网站名家专栏,邮箱地址:zhuanlan@jrj.com.cn,咨询电话:010-83363000-3477。期待您的加入!

关键词阅读:中国 生物天然气行业 现状 问题 前景

责任编辑:Robot RF13015
快来分享:
评论 已有 0 条评论
精彩推荐
除了芯片 还有这24项核心技术中国不掌握

2018-04-19 13:05:15来源:财经记者站

速递减税清单:4000亿红包袭来 哪些上市公司被砸中

2018-03-30 06:28:20来源:上海证券报

外媒:中国已重启QDLP境外投资机制 为2015年来首次

2018-02-08 12:50:38来源:金融界网站

雄安新区今年将建13大产业项目 总投资超过600亿

2018-04-19 22:05:54来源:金融界网站

新华社分析如何突破缺芯困境 建议给芯片公司绿色通道

2018-04-19 22:23:41来源:新华社

爆炒海南自由港房价的48小时

2018-04-17 11:58:15来源:秋水笔谈

媒体:中国计划加速芯片产业发展

2018-04-19 21:51:25来源:金融界网站

商务部谈美制裁中兴 会影响成百上千美企

2018-04-20 00:48:39来源:证券日报

章建平又触雷:乐视网12个跌停后还有20亿市值中兴通讯

2018-04-19 21:42:45来源:证券时报网

中兴被美国制裁 这些都需要反思

2018-04-19 06:51:15来源:中国企业家杂志

发改委年内力争为社会“减负”1500亿元

2018-04-20 00:52:02来源:证券日报

爱公寓资金吃紧引房东退租 接盘方欲扭乾坤紧急介入

2018-04-20 00:41:52来源:每日经济新闻

爱公寓凸显行业困境:长租公寓靠租金差赚钱难以为继

2018-04-20 00:45:09来源:每日经济新闻

中国三大存储芯片企业预计下半年试产

2018-04-19 19:22:28来源:金融界网站

苏宁银行开张民营银行增至12家 还有5家在路上

2017-06-16 21:15:54来源:e公司官微

商务部:美国对中兴做法最终只能是搬起石头砸自己的脚

2018-04-19 10:23:31来源:金融界网站

人民日报:发展国产芯片 这事不能再拖了

2018-04-18 20:02:26来源:人民日报

申通曝快捷快递资金吃紧拟破产重组 加盟商寄望“一个月内复盘”

2018-04-19 21:30:49来源:每日经济新闻

税收数据首季开门红印证经济稳中向好

2018-04-20 00:47:31来源:证券日报

第三批混改试点陆续获批 引入外资将成亮点

2018-04-20 00:49:21来源:证券日报

加载更多

更多>> 以下为您的最近访问股
全网|财经|股票|理财 24小时点击排行
实时热点